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The special issue volume “The evolution of hominin food resource exploitation in Pleistocene Europe: Recent studies in Zooarchaeology” provides a status report on recent research in this field. It represents the outcome of a session... more
The special issue volume “The evolution of hominin food resource exploitation in Pleistocene Europe: Recent studies in Zooarchaeology” provides a status report on recent research in this field. It represents the outcome of a session organized during the 11. International Council of Archaeozoology meeting in Paris in August 2010.
The contributions addressed the full range of hominin subsistence during the Pleistocene and early Holocene starting with the question of megafaunal exploitation at Olduvai and ending with diet diversity and the advent of resource management in south-eastern Anatolia at the Holocene boundary. The papers illustrated the diversity of agendas addressed in the various epochs considered. What became apparent was the ubiquitous aspire for new perspectives in the interpretation of zooarchaeological data and the effort to obtain a higher resolution in the acquisition of data. The current special issue volume represents a condensed compilation of some of the papers presented.
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Rabinovich, R., Gaudzinski-Windheuser, S., Kindler, L., Goren-Inbar, N., 2011. The Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov. Mammalian Taphonomy. The assemblages of Layers V-5 and V-6. Springer, Dordrecht. Multidisciplinary research on the... more
Rabinovich, R., Gaudzinski-Windheuser, S., Kindler, L., Goren-Inbar, N., 2011. The Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov. Mammalian Taphonomy. The assemblages of Layers V-5 and V-6. Springer, Dordrecht.

Multidisciplinary research on the Early-Middle Pleisocene site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov has yielded abundant climatic, environmental, ecological and behavioural records. The 15 archaeological horizons from a sequence of Acheulian occupational episodes on the shore of the paleo-Lake Hula. These enable us to reconstruct numerous aspects of the survival and adaptation of ancient hominins, leading to a better understanding of their evolution and behaviour. This book presents the faunal analysis of the medium-sized and large mammals, providing taxonomic, taphonomic and actualistic data for the largest faunal assemblages. The study of modes of animal exploitation reveals valuable information on hominin behaviour.
The book is devoted to building a bridge between modern and Pleistocene art. In 16 contributions a variety of authors tackle this interesting topic.
The book illustrates the Pleistocene and Early Holocene history of hominin occupation of the middle Rhine area of Germany.
The Early Pleistocene 'Ubeidiya Formation (Israel) represents one of the most important sources for our knowledge of early hominins' subsistence strategies in Eurasia. The book reports the results of comparative taphonomic studies of... more
The Early Pleistocene 'Ubeidiya Formation (Israel) represents one of the most important sources for our knowledge of early hominins' subsistence strategies in Eurasia. The book reports the results of comparative taphonomic studies of faunal assemblages from 17 archaeological horizons. It is concluded that hunting of medium-sized mammals was among the subsistence strategies available to Early Pleistocene Levantine hominins.
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The book provides a discussion on the role played by our ancestors in food procurement and exploitation during the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic in Europe.
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The Middle Pleistocene open-air site Kärlich—Seeufer provides evidence for hominin activity during a Middle Pleistocene interglaciation ( the Kärlich Interglaciation, dated to post-Cromer IV and pre-Holstein (sensu stricto)). More than... more
The Middle Pleistocene open-air site Kärlich—Seeufer provides evidence for hominin activity during a Middle Pleistocene
interglaciation ( the Kärlich Interglaciation, dated to post-Cromer IV and pre-Holstein (sensu stricto)).
More than 400m² have been excavated. The site is characterized by Acheulean artifacts, a fauna dominated by Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus, and a unique and outstanding preservation of wooden and other palaeobotanical remains. The book presents the archaeological evidence unearthed at this important site. Moreover detailed study of site formation processes give provides insight into the mechanisms, which led to the site formation.
It is concluded that the site can be interpreted as a reworked archaeological sample. Hominid occupation occurred in the vicinity of a small lake with prevailing mesooligotrophic conditions.
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The Middle Palaeolithic open site of Wallertheim (Germany) provides an excellent example for monospecific long-term exploitation of large Bovids by Neanderthals. The book presents a detailed introduction to the open-air site and the... more
The Middle Palaeolithic open site of Wallertheim (Germany) provides an excellent example for monospecific long-term exploitation of large Bovids by Neanderthals.
The book presents a detailed introduction to the open-air site and the gives the results of a reappraisal of the faunal assemblage.
The presented evidence for Neanderthal subsistence is discussed in a broader context. It is concluded that monospecific hunting activities palyed a major role for the subsistence strategies of our ancestors.
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Received 10 January 2014 Revision received 3 September 2015 Keywords: Private and public use of space Magdalenian Oelknitz Spatial analysis Dwelling structure Activity zones Settlement behaviour 1. Introduction The reconstruction of past... more
Received 10 January 2014
Revision received 3 September 2015
Keywords:
Private and public use of space Magdalenian
Oelknitz
Spatial analysis
Dwelling structure Activity zones Settlement behaviour
1. Introduction
The reconstruction of past hominin behaviour is among the most important research goals in current Pleistocene Archaeology. Hominin behavioural strategies based on the study of material remains are often used for inferences on the complexity of hominins’ cognitive capacities and/or the social complexity of hominin populations. The disentangling of past hominin behaviour is closely intertwined with studies on the spatial and temporal resolution of the archaeological substrate analysed (Gaudzinski-Windheuser et al., 2011; Leroi-Gourhan and Brézillon, 1966, 1973; Pigeot, 1984, 1987; Audouze et al., 1984; Julien et al., 1988; Terberger, 1997; Enloe and David, 1989; Bullinger et al., 2006; Pumettaz, 2007; Sensburg, 2007; Sensburg and Moseler, 2007; Street and Turner, 2013). Piece plotting of artefacts and bones and their quantitative spatial distribution, piece plotting of elements with defined taphonomic variables, refitting studies on lithics, stones and bones and micromorphological studies on sedi- ment formation are employed to narrow down the temporal resolu- tion of the past hominin activities and their relation to each other.
Two basic concepts were introduced to outline the chronologi- cal and chorological perspectives of the archaeological record: the ‘‘living-floor” and the ‘‘palimpsest” concepts. Whereas the concept
⇑ Address: MONREPOS Archaeological Research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution, Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Germany.
E-mail address: gaudzinski@rgzm.de
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaa.2015.09.001
0278-4165/! 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
abstract
The site of Oelknitz (Thuringia, Germany) is among the largest and in terms of spatial organisation most complex Magdalenian open air sites known to date, rich in evident structures. The current paper reports evidence from the youngest, latest phase of occupation at Oelknitz Structure 3. It is demonstrated that this structure represents a dwelling construction characterised by different spatially distinct activity zones. Several hypotheses can be drawn from this evidence in order to understand basic principles on Magdalenians’ settlement behaviour and their social cohesion.
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Since the discovery of the first Palaeolithic “Venus” figurines it became apparent that hominins had been reflecting on their identity and their place in the universe at least since the beginning of the Upper Palaeolithic. It is this... more
Since the discovery of the first Palaeolithic “Venus” figurines it became apparent that hominins had been reflecting on their identity and their place in the universe at least since the beginning of the Upper Palaeolithic. It is this existentialist spiritual confrontation of Palaeolithic humans with themselves that has not only attracted the scientific interest of both archaeologists and art historians but that has also fascinated the wider public. Since these first discoveries the specific function and the potential messages of this type of artwork are the subject of ongoing discussion.
The design of the frequently occurring female depictions known from Upper Palaeolithic Eurasia underwent significant change through time. This becomes especially apparent when comparing the Mid-Upper Palaeolithic “Willendorf-style” figurines with the schematic images of the “Gönnersdorf-type” found in Late Magdalenian and younger contexts.
The present paper considers female images in their stylistic, spatial and temporal contexts. It is concluded that the schematic style of the latest Upper Palaeolithic female depictions is of symbolic character and represents an artistic reflection of changes in the social role of women during a period of rapid range expansion of Late Glacial populations.

Gaudzinski-Windheuser, S., Jöris, O., 2015. Contextualising the female image - symbols for common ideas and communal identity in Upper Palaeolithic Societies. In: F. Coward, R. Hosfield, M. Pope & F. Wenban-Smith (Eds.), Settlement, Society and Cognition in Human Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 288-314.
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Herbivores from the Neumark-Nord 2 archaeological site, Germany, were analysed for bone collagen stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios in order to investigate feeding ecology at this early Last Interglacial (Eemian)... more
Herbivores from the Neumark-Nord 2 archaeological site, Germany, were analysed for bone collagen stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios in order to investigate feeding ecology at this early Last Interglacial (Eemian) shallow-lake site. Of 42 faunal samples selected, 23 yielded collagen, demonstrating remarkable preservation for material of this age. The results indicate clear inter-specific differences in δ15N and
δ13C values, notably between equids (Equus) and bovids (Bos/Bison), with mean difference Δ15N of +2‰ measured in the bovids compared to the equids. The potential reasons for these differences are explored, including physiology, herbivore feeding ecology, biogeography and resource partitioning within the local environment. The data are compared to previously published archaeological data, and modern experimental and
ecological data, suggesting that these inter-specific differences are not consistent and therefore unlikely to be solely the product of physiology or habitual forage preference. Data from this study are compared to the local vegetation (as reconstructed from pollen profiles), and it is suggested that these trends are likely the result of niche partitioning at the shallow lake site, reflecting the local diversity in vegetational zones. The evidence for
resource partitioning amongst Pleistocene herbivore communities at Neumark-Nord 2 and elsewhere is discussed.
This study represents one of the largest data sets for collagen of this age, and the implications for our understanding of Late Pleistocene herbivore ecology, local herbivore community behaviour and hominin
palaeodietary studies are explored.
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The discipline of archaeozoology holds the potential to considerably contribute to knowledge about the social behaviour of Neandertals. However, the translation of proposed subsistence strategies into predictions about Neandertal social... more
The discipline of archaeozoology holds the potential to considerably contribute to knowledge about the
social behaviour of Neandertals. However, the translation of proposed subsistence strategies into predictions about Neandertal social organisation still remains a challenge. The paper discusses the current state of archaeozoological research with respect to Neandertal subsistence. It is concluded that
the methodological research focus in archaeozoology has shifted from its original holistic perspective to
intensified/specialised studies of particular taphonomic components. The authors argue for a return to
a more holistic perspective to develop the full potential of archaeolozoology in order to obtain a comprehensive overall perspective of Neandertal social behaviour. Here, two avenues are suggested to reflate the processual character of taphonomy: 1. by conducting actualistic studies, which should serve to
test the homogeneity of a faunal assemblage; and 2. by concentrating on sites from ecologically welldefined
environments with high temporal resolution, such as interglacial sites.
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The current paper reports on the faunal assemblage from Structure 1 at the German Magdalenian site of Oelknitz. The composition of the fauna is characterised by a dominance of horse. The horses were exploited for meat and marrow. A strict... more
The current paper reports on the faunal assemblage from Structure 1 at the German Magdalenian site of
Oelknitz. The composition of the fauna is characterised by a dominance of horse. The horses were exploited for meat and marrow. A strict spatial separation of carcass parts is obvious, also observed at other Magdalenian sites, where the evidence was interpreted in terms of social interaction and food
sharing. This is discussed against the contextual background of the site of Oelknitz. It is suggested that the way in which Magdalenians interacted socially is independent of site function.
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An introduction to living structures and the history of occupation at the Late Upper Palaeolithic site of Oelknitz (Thuringia, Germany) The Late Upper Palaeolithic site of Oelknitz represents one of the largest and best preserved... more
An introduction to living structures and the history of occupation at the Late Upper Palaeolithic site of Oelknitz (Thuringia, Germany)
The Late Upper Palaeolithic site of Oelknitz represents one of the largest and best preserved Magdalenian sites in
northern Central Europe. Excavations from 1957-1967 revealed seven spatially distinct accumulations of lange stone
slabs, bones and Iithics, often associated with numerous pits and hearths. Some of these spatial concentrations can be
interpreted in terms of dwelling structures, giving an insight into Magdalenian settlement systems. The current paper
seeks to present and describe the archaeoiogical evidence uncovered at Oelknitz.
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There has been considerable debate about Neanderthals’ capacities to survive in interglacial environments, especially the last interglacial, the Eemian, and this paper starts with a short review of that debate. The evidence for... more
There has been considerable debate about
Neanderthals’ capacities to survive in interglacial environments,
especially the last interglacial, the Eemian, and this
paper starts with a short review of that debate. The evidence
for Neanderthal subsistence during the Eemian suggests that
Neanderthal hunting activities may have had a strong focus
on large mammals, possibly as a result of the high exploitation
costs for smaller sized prey in these interglacial environments.
Using recent studies of Neanderthal energetic
requirements and their possible implications for Neanderthal
behavior, we develop an explanation for the character of the
Eemian archeological record from our working area, northwestern
and central Europe.
The current paper reports an experimental case study to test the heterogeneity of faunal assemblages from the Early-Middle Pleistocene Layers V-5 and V-6 of the Gesher Benot Ya’aqov Acheulian site (Israel). Tumbling and trampling... more
The current paper reports an experimental case study to test the heterogeneity of faunal assemblages from the Early-Middle Pleistocene Layers V-5 and V-6 of the Gesher Benot Ya’aqov Acheulian site (Israel).
Tumbling and trampling experiments were initiated to gain qualitative insight into processes of bone modification and to assess the timing of the biostratonomic chronology, as it was assumed that both mechanisms were responsible for the formation of striations documented on the bone surfaces from the
site. The tumbling experiments mimicked sediment movement in a calm lacustrine shoreline environment whereas the trampling experiments investigate the role of animal/hominin activities in dry, muddy and wet environments. Models for the internal operational sequence of an abrasional process due to uniand
multidirectional water movement and of a trampling scenario are presented. These models are used for the interpretation of the fauna from Gesher Benot Ya’aqov.
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The aim of this paper is to more clearly classify Middle Paleolithic subsistence tactics by considering this evidence against an Upper Paleolithic background, where we discern a clearer picture of human subsistence tactics. Therefore, a... more
The aim of this paper is to more clearly classify
Middle Paleolithic subsistence tactics by considering this
evidence against an Upper Paleolithic background, where
we discern a clearer picture of human subsistence tactics.
Therefore, a diachronous comparative analysis of reindeer
assemblages from northwestern European archaeological
sites was undertaken. Differences in exploitation strategies
become clearly visible for the late Upper Paleolithic, which
can be interpreted to partly reflect the demands of elaborate
settlement dynamics, evidence of which we especially lack
for the Middle Paleolithic. Because of these differences in
social networking strategies between Middle and Upper
Palaeolithic groups, it seems highly likely that subsistence
behavior involving the careful selection of large mammal
resources was particularly crucial to maintaining high foraging
return rates during the Middle Palaeolithic.
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Three assemblages of fallow deer (Dama sp.) bones excavated from the early middle Pleistocene (oxygen isotope stage 18) layers of the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov, Israel, furnish evidence of systematic and repeated exploitation... more
Three assemblages of fallow deer (Dama sp.) bones excavated from the early middle Pleistocene (oxygen isotope stage 18) layers of the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov, Israel, furnish evidence of systematic and repeated exploitation of complete carcasses by hominins.
The excellent state of preservation of the bones and the presence of only minimal signs of carnivore involvement permit an investigation of the role of hominins as the primary agents responsible for the damage to these bones. Hominin expertise in dealing with fallow deer carcasses is manifested by cut marks, percussion marks, and hack marks on the bones. The archaeozoological analysis of the anatomical position and
frequency of these marks suggests that carcass processing followed systematic practices that reflect an in-depth knowledge of fallow deer anatomy and a consistent behavioral strategy. These assemblages represent one of the earliest examples of methodological butchering practices in Eurasia. The evidence of carcass processing observed at Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov resembles that seen in late Pleistocene sites in Israel, which were inhabited by modern humans. We interpret the Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov data as indicating that the Acheulian hunters at the site (1) were proficient communicators and learners and (2) possessed anatomical knowledge, considerable manual skill, impressive technological abilities, and foresight.
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This paper presents an overview of the use of Proboscidean remains in every day Palaeolithic life, in an attempt to illuminate some aspects of the relationship between Proboscideans and humans during the Palaeolithic from an... more
This paper presents an overview of the use of Proboscidean remains in every day Palaeolithic life, in an attempt to illuminate some aspects of the relationship between Proboscideans and humans during the Palaeolithic from an archaeological perspective. A short survey of the evidence is given, focussing on the associations of lithic tools and Proboscidean remains and the utilisation of Proboscidean remains to produce bone tools, objects of art and personal decoration and dwellings. The evidence is compiled and general trends in the archaeological record are outlined
The site of Untermassfeld (Germany) documents flood catastrophes of the Werra River ca. 1 Myr years ago. Although all vertebrate individuals of an equivalent thanatocoenosis in principle undcrwent the same taphonomic history different... more
The site of Untermassfeld (Germany) documents flood catastrophes of the Werra River ca. 1 Myr years ago. Although all vertebrate individuals of an equivalent thanatocoenosis in principle undcrwent the same taphonomic history different mortality patterns have been observed for different animal species. lt can be demonstrated that mortality patterns preserved by the fossil record are heavily aff‘ected by the physiological capability and ethology of a particular species as weil as by the particular taphonomic situation prevailing at the location offinal deposition. Against this background mortaiity patterns for the interpretation of faunal assembiages from archaeological sites are discussed in a broader context.
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Monospecific or species dominated faunal assemblages are a common phenomenon especially during the Upper Pleistocene in Europe. Analysis of these assemblages indicated hunting by Neanderthals and moreover point to a variety of... more
Monospecific or species dominated faunal assemblages are a common phenomenon especially during the Upper Pleistocene in Europe. Analysis of these assemblages indicated hunting by Neanderthals and moreover point to a variety of exploitation tactics used which can be interpreted in terms of a highly flexible subsistence strategy. Though these assemblages provide an excellent source for our understanding of Neanderthals` subsistence the coarse chronological resolution during the Pleistocene prevents further and far reaching conclusions concerning evolutionary behavioural trends during the Middle Palaeolithic.
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In previous analyses of Salzgitter-Lebenstedt the resuits have been directedtowards the debare over hunting and the implications for modern behaviour (Gaudzinski and Roebroeks 2000). In this chapter we have asked a differentset... more
In previous analyses of Salzgitter-Lebenstedt the resuits have been directedtowards the debare over hunting and the implications for modern behaviour
(Gaudzinski and Roebroeks 2000). In this chapter we have asked a differentset ofquestions and placed hominid individuals in their landscapes rather than their evolutionary stage. The latter will probably always require a unit ofanalysis that recognises the primacy of the group. The former, however, opens
up another perspective on Palaeolithic data that all too often are regardedas too meagre to answer social questions. We have resisted identifiing eitherindividuals or the places which own them (Binford 1991: 66) through speculative site biographies (e.g. Isaac 1976: 484—5). Instead we have used the
concept of the individual as a knowledgeable actor able to influence outcomes and involved in the self-creation ofsocial life. We have shown how bones carry more information than just calories and dietary specialisation. We conclude
that a different debate about the significance of patterning is possible with Palaeolithic data. The rational accounts of human beings which have dominated for twenty years can be augmented by a relational framework that leads us to fresh enquiry and a re-unification ofthe Palaeolithic, and all its hominids, with a common, but variable, expression of identity in the rest of the human past.
The paper reports the results of a taphonomic faunal analysis of the Plio-Pleistocene 'Ubeidiya Formation (Israel), focussing on 'Ubeidiya layer II-24. The role of hominins in assemblage formation is indicated by the presence of... more
The paper reports the results of a taphonomic faunal analysis of the Plio-Pleistocene 'Ubeidiya Formation (Israel), focussing on 'Ubeidiya layer II-24. The role of hominins in assemblage formation is indicated by the presence of stone-artifacts, as well as by cut-marks on bones. Evidence for marrow processing is lacking. The faunal assemblage from layer II-24 is representative of other assemblages from the 'Ubeidiya formation from which comparable results have been obteined. The evidence is discussed in a borader context and it is concluded that hunding of medium-sized animals was probably among the subsistence strategies of Early Pleistocene Levantine hominins.
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The Eemian Interglacial in north-central Europe describes a phase of ca. 10,000—11,000years tor which detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstruction is available, Hominid subsis tence during this period is considered based on evidence from... more
The Eemian Interglacial in north-central Europe describes a phase of ca. 10,000—11,000years tor which detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstruction is available, Hominid subsis
tence during this period is considered based on evidence from the German sites of Lehringen, Gräbern, Neumark-Nord and Taubach. lt is concluded that the overall subsistence
strategies of the Neanderthals were directed towards highly efficient resource exploitation irrespective of the environmental context. Problems immanent to interpretations of Middle
Palaeolithic hominid responses to the palaeoenvironment are discussed
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This paper reports the results of a taphonomic analysis of 17 faunal assembiages from archaeological horizons of the Early Pleistocene ‘Ubeidiya Formation (Israel), focussing in particular on two representative assembiages (I-I5LFII-16... more
This paper reports the results of a taphonomic analysis of 17 faunal assembiages from archaeological horizons of the Early
Pleistocene ‘Ubeidiya Formation (Israel), focussing in particular on two representative assembiages (I-I5LFII-16 and 11-23).
Cut-rnarks on bones show that hominids interacted with the fauna and point to meat exploitation. In contrast, traces for marrow bone breakage were not observed. The absence of marrow processing at ‘Ubeidiya provides a marked contrast to the bone marrow focussed subsistence based on scavenging proposed by sorne researchers for African early horninids, and this question is discussed in a broader context.
lt is concluded that hunting of medium-sized mammals was probably one of the subsistence strategies available to Early
Pleistocene Levantine hominids.
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The paper examines the Magdalenian faunal record in three regions of Germany with reference to chronology and environmental context. It is concluded that subsistence during this period is largely unspecialized and highly dependent on... more
The paper examines the Magdalenian faunal record in three regions of Germany with reference to chronology and environmental context. It is concluded that subsistence during this period is largely unspecialized and highly dependent on topographical, seasonal and ecological constraints, an interpretation which is discussed in a borader context.
Three cranial fragments were recovered from coarse-grained deposits dug up by a suction dredge from gravel pits on the Leine river flats in the vicinity of Sarstedt (northwestern Germany). Also recovered were a number of artefacts which,... more
Three cranial fragments were recovered from coarse-grained deposits dug up by a suction dredge from gravel pits on the Leine river flats in the vicinity of Sarstedt (northwestern Germany). Also recovered were a number of artefacts which, upon careful inspection, could be assigned to the Middle Paleolithic. The geological pattern of the Leine Valley in this region suggests that these fragments were deposited in the lower terrace during a yet undetermined warm period—possibly Brörup or Odderade—during the Weichsel glaciation. However, attribution to the Eemian period or a Saale interstadial cannot be ruled out. The features of the Sarstedt (Sst) I infant temporal are known from Neanderthals (e.g., Weimar-Ehringsdorf, Engis, Krapina 1) and can be seen in specimens from the European late- Homo erectus group as well. Subadult individuals do not always exhibit full development of features characteristic for adults and—to some extent—anticipate the succeeding developmental stage (i.e., neoteny). The Neanderthal autapomorphies characterizing the fragments of the occipital and the parietal are certainly consistent with assigning both unequivocally to the species H. neanderthalensis. The presence of Middle Paleolithic artefacts recovered from the same deposits are commensurate with the presence of Neanderthals. However, there is no clear contextual association of any archaeological and fossil human material. Future DNA research will hopefully add up to the established morphological picture.
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The Middle Palaeolithic site Salzgitter Lebenstedt (northern Ger many), excavated in 1952, is weil known because of its well-preservedfaunal remains, dorninated by aduit reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). The archaeological assembiage... more
The Middle Palaeolithic site Salzgitter Lebenstedt (northern Ger
many), excavated in 1952, is weil known because of its well-preservedfaunal remains, dorninated by aduit reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). The archaeological assembiage accumulated in an arctic setting in anearlier part of the last (Weichsel) glacial (01S5-3). The site is
remarkable because of the presence of unique Middle Palaeohthic bone tools and the occurrence of the northernrnost Neanderthal rernains, but this paper focuses on an analysis of its reindeer assemblage. The resuits indicate autumn hunting of reindeer by Middle Palaeolithic hominids. After the hunt, carcasses were butchered and in subsequent marrow processing of the bones a selection against
young and sub-adult animals occurred. Aduits were clearly preferred, and from their bones, again, poorer marrow bones were neglected. This focus on primeness of resources has been documented in other dornains of Neanderthal behaviour, hut Salzgitter Lebenstedt is the best example yet known in terms of systematic and routinized processing of garne. The Salzgitter Lebenstedt assernblage displays sorne rernarkable sirnilarities to the Late Glacial reindeer assernblages
from the Ahrensburg tunnel valley sites. The subsequent review ofthe evidence on subsistence strategies from earher periods of the European Palaeolithic shows that hunting of large mammals may have been a part of the behavioural repertoire of the Middle Pleistocene occupants of Europe from the earlfest occupation onwards. At the same time, it is suggested that these eariy hunting strategies were incorporated in ways of rnoving through landscapes (“settlement systems“) which were different frorn what we know from the middleparts of the Upper Palaeolithic onwards.
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At the Middle Palaeolithic site of Salzgitter-Lebenstedt (Germany) an assemblage of bone tools (N=28) made ofMammuthus primigeniusribs and fibulae was reanalysed. The tools are described comprehensively. Taphonomic analysis of the... more
At the Middle Palaeolithic site of Salzgitter-Lebenstedt (Germany) an assemblage of bone tools (N=28) made ofMammuthus primigeniusribs and fibulae was reanalysed. The tools are described comprehensively. Taphonomic analysis of the complete faunal assemblage, serving as a background for this study, showed that the raw material for bone tool production has most probably been intentionally selected by hominids. The bone tools are discussed within the archaeological context illustrating their unique occurrence in the Middle Palaeolithic record.
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The Middle Palaeolithic site of Salzgitter-Lebenstedt represents one of the most important exposures for our knowledge of the evolution of hominin behaviour. Faunal analysis at the site revealed evidence for a reindeer mass-kill.... more
The Middle Palaeolithic site of Salzgitter-Lebenstedt represents one of the most important exposures for our knowledge of the evolution of hominin behaviour. Faunal analysis at the site revealed evidence for a reindeer mass-kill. Moreover, Salzgitter-Lebenstedt an assemblage of 28 bone tools was uncovered which have been manufactured by Neanderthals. Taphonomic analysis of the complete faunal assemblage, serves as a background for the study of the bone tools. It could be demonstrated that the raw material for the bone tools was intentionally selected by hominins. The bone tools are discussed within the archaeological context illustrating their unique occurrence in the Middle palaeolithic record.
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The Kärlich—Seeufer archaeological site in Germany‘s central Rhineland was excavated between 1980 and 1992. The site pro vides evidence for hominid activity during a Middle Pleistocene interglaciation known up to now only from the... more
The Kärlich—Seeufer archaeological site in Germany‘s central
Rhineland was excavated between 1980 and 1992. The site pro
vides evidence for hominid activity during a Middle Pleistocene
interglaciation known up to now only from the Kärlich clay pit
and therefore defined as the Kärlich Interglaciation, which is con
sidered to be post-Cromer IV and pre-Holstein (sensu stricto) in
age. The site is characterized by Acheulean artifacts, a fauna dominated by Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus, and a unique and outstanding preservation of wooden and other palaeobotanical remains. Assuming all finds are associated, the site previously was interpreted as an elephant hunting camp with a wooden structure,together with wood and bone implements preserved in situ. Recent analysis of the same features has shown that the site can also be interpreted as a reworked archaeological sample. Hominid occupation occurred in the vicinity of a small lake with prevailing mesooligotrophic conditions. Expanding boreal forests and fen vegetation characterized the landscape.
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The Middle Palaeolithic open site of Wallertheim was excavated in 1927 and 1928. It has since become relatively well-known due to the rich faunal remains and the stone artefacts present in the sediments. This paper presents the results of... more
The Middle Palaeolithic open site of Wallertheim was excavated in 1927 and 1928. It has since become relatively well-known due to the rich faunal remains and the stone artefacts present in the sediments. This paper presents the results of a reappraisal of the faunal assemblage of Wallertheim. As a result of the taphonomic analysis it is argued that only one species of the diverse fauna can be convincingly related to human activities: Bison priscus, the steppe bison. This will be discussed briefly in the context of other Middle Palaeolithic sites. Attention will be drawn to the implications of taphonomic analyses for the interpretation of Middle Palaeolithic subsistence strategies.
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